The condition of the second treatise, which was translated into German from Persian by H.Ritter, J.Ruska, R.Winderlich and F.Sarre, is unfortunately not very different from the first. It was published in the “Istanbuler Mitteilungen” magazine’s third issue in 1935, under the title “Orientalische Steinbücher Persiche Fayencetechnik”.
The treatise provides the basis of scientific and technologic systems belonging to the Ilkhanids, who was the successor of Seljuks. The problem in this manuscript is the alchemical data, which is hidden within the recipes and references, and the scientific information are difficult to separate from each other.
This treatise contains practical knowledge nowadays, but they are seen as concepts, which rely on applications belonging to different branches of technology. Some of the expressions are not sufficiently understood. It is not illustrated with drawings, tables or pictures. There is not enough clear information about the raw materials, supplies, process and power. The fact that certain parts of the treatise could still not be solved after 70 years, may be due to the inefficient research of foreign researchers unfamiliar to the culture of ceramic production.
The goal of this project is to make the technology of that period familiar to the people who are interested in the subject, and to relate it to today’s scientific language and concepts. The importance of the subject lies in finding the ceramic production norms, the methods of gathering enough technological information for reproduction and providing a milestone for the ceramic section within the history of ceramic technology.
The most correct and acceptable accurate evaluation of the production process, is to compare the production-producer- environment of the current technological knowledge by taking into consideration the scientific environment, scientist and science relationship of the past.
We have been limited in the research results because of not having the possibility of travelling to Kashan to conduct site to study original examples of materials.
When selecting the method, written records of the different fields in relation to the subject, had been researched thoroughly in order to be able to reach the scientifically qualitative and quantitative results of technological norms. The validity of the knowledge had been tested in working series which are explained in the manuscript.
Treatise of Abul Qasim is a hallmark work for the history of ceramic technology as it defines the standards of ceramic production of his time and gives enough details to recreate his recipes. The goal of Tuna’s thesis, by using the scientific jargon and concepts of today, is to make the technology of Abul Qasim’s period comprehensible to the interested persons*.
* The production of İznik ceramics was ceased at the beginning of the 18th century. Turgut Tuna believes that with his thesis on the technological analysis of Treatise on Ceramic, the forgotten memory of İznik can be revitalized. In order to learn in detail and apply ceramic based on production:
- After his graduation in 1970, he started research and development works in Kütahya on limestone ceramic production by casting.
- In 1971-1975 he worked as a researcher, designer, planner, programmer and manager in İstanbul Porcelain Factory.
- In 1976 with his experience on Kütahya ceramics and porcelain production, he established the first “Tuna Ceramic” design atellier in Bursa-Yeniceabat village.
This atellier is known as the first atellier established in Bursa-İznik district in the Turkish Republic Period. In this atellier T. Tuna achieved meist of his knowledge by the analyses of recipes of his MA Thesis. -
He got acquainted with original İznik ceramic samples during the restoration of the ceramic remnants in Bursa Ethnography Museum. His involvement as an expert in the archeological excavation site of the İznik Theater beginning by 1981 had a major affect on him to create the concept. He learned to cast quartz clay, the forgotten pecularity of İznik ceramics, and to create the dyes, slips and glazes of old times. With his revivals “Turgut Tuna traditional replicas”,
- In 1983, his works were exhibited in New York, Emerson Museum, Budapest, Copenhagen, Krakow, Prague, Damascus, Aleppo, Amman as part of the “Plastic and Traditional Handcrafts of the Republic Period” events;
- In 1983, his works were used in 3 posters of Ministry of Culture and Tourism
- 1986, Production of a collection for “Dösim” Sale Stores of Ministry of Cultureİ
- 1993, Bursa Ulucami Fountain-Reproduction of restoration tiles;
- 1994, Bursa Yeniceabat village fountain tiles production;
- 1998/99, V&A, London -“İznik revivals collection” production;
- 2011, he founded in Bursa-Yeniceabat his new atellier “Turgut Tuna Ceramic Farm”, where he still works on revivals, “Novelties in actual norm, designs with a traditional spirit, and creative designs”.
Turgut Tuna, carrying the sensitiveness of an artist and consciousness of being a Bursa citizen, realizes the analysis, definition, design and production of Ottoman ceramics, which are being degenerated or lost in historical buildings.